Using ONBUILD instruction
Say, you are writing a Dockerfile. You can’t just call ADD and RUN now, because you don’t yet have access to the application source code, and it will be different for each application build. You could simply provide application developers with a boilerplate Dockerfile to copy-paste into their application, but that is inefficient, error-prone and difficult to update because it mixes with application-specific code.
Comes ONBUILD for the rescue..
An ONBUILD command executes after the current Dockerfile build completes. ONBUILD executes in any child image derived FROM the current image. Think of the ONBUILD command as an instruction the parent Dockerfile gives to the child Dockerfile.
A Docker build executes ONBUILD commands before any command in a child Dockerfile.
ONBUILD is useful for images that are going to be built FROM a given image. For example, you would use ONBUILD for a language stack image that builds arbitrary user software written in that language within the Dockerfile, as you can see in Ruby’s ONBUILD variants.
Images built from ONBUILD should get a separate tag, for example: ruby:1.9-onbuild or ruby:2.0-onbuild.
Be careful when putting ADD or COPY in ONBUILD. The “onbuild” image fails catastrophically if the new build’s context is missing the resource being added. Adding a separate tag, as recommended above, helps mitigate this by allowing the Dockerfile author to make a choice.
The ONBUILD instruction adds to the image a trigger instruction to be executed at a later time, when the image is used as the base for another build. The trigger will be executed in the context of the downstream build, as if it had been inserted immediately after the FROM instruction in the downstream Dockerfile.
Any build instruction can be registered as a trigger.
This is useful if you are building an image which will be used as a base to build other images, for example an application build environment or a daemon which may be customized with user-specific configuration.
How does ONBUILD work?
- When it encounters an ONBUILD instruction, the builder adds a trigger to the metadata of the image being built. The instruction does not otherwise affect the current build.
- At the end of the build, a list of all triggers is stored in the image manifest, under the key OnBuild. They can be inspected with the docker inspect command.
- Later the image may be used as a base for a new build, using the FROM instruction. As part of processing the FROM instruction, the downstream builder looks for ONBUILD triggers, and executes them in the same order they were registered. If any of the triggers fail, the FROM instruction is aborted which in turn causes the build to fail. If all triggers succeed, the FROM instruction completes and the build continues as usual.
- Triggers are cleared from the final image after being executed. In other words they are not inherited by “grand-children” builds.